The exhaust system is meant to move out the burnt air and fuel mixture out of the engine. However, there is more to this system than this. It must also clean the emission and reduce the amount of noise produced. It also has an impact on the performance of your car. How does the exhaust system in your vehicle work? What are its key components? Find out in this guide.
What are Vehicle Exhaust Systems?
Exhaust systems are designed to remove gases produced inside the engine’s combustion chamber. It will have many components that work together to remove gases including carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. If your vehicle’s exhaust system stops working properly, it will result in the loss of power and fuel efficiency. You may also fail to pass an emissions control check.
Components of an Exhaust System
The main components of an exhaust system are as follows:
- Exhaust Valve: This part is in the cylinder head and it will open after the piston’s stroke.
- Piston: The piston is responsible for pushing the gases created during combustion into the exhaust manifold.
- Exhaust manifold: It is the exhaust manifold that further transmits the emissions to the catalytic converter.
- Catalytic Converter: It will reduce the percentage of toxins in the emissions to clean the gases.
- Exhaust Pipe: The emissions are then moved from the catalytic converter to the muffler via the exhaust pipe.
- Muffler: The function of the muffler is to reduce the noise and remove the exhaust gases.
How Does the System Work?
Exhaust gases are produced in the engine after the fourth cycle gets completed. All the cylinders are connected to the exhaust manifold through respective pipes. There is a single output and the manifold simultaneously collects the exhaust gases from the different chambers. The gases are pushed through a single pipe. A poppet valve controls the opening and closing of the manifold.
Once the exhaust gases are collected, they pass through the catalytic converter through pipes. Oxygen sensors play a role in checking oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Excess oxygen is a sign that the engine is not using adequate fuel. Less oxygen is a sign that excess fuel is used, and the sensors send this data to the TCU to adjust the fuel delivery.
What is a Catalytic Converter?
The catalytic converter is an important part of the exhaust system and has a crucial role to play in the process. It works to reduce the emission of harmful carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide, resulting in the release of harmless gases.
- The converter works by breaking down the gases using two processes – reduction and oxidation.
- Reduction takes place when the converter breaks down nitrous oxide particles into nitrogen and oxygen which are harmless
- Oxidation takes place when carbon monoxide particles are transformed into carbon dioxide, which is a harmless gas.
Thus, the catalytic converter plays a very important role in cleaning the exhaust gases before emission. These cleaned gases are further tested by another oxygen sensor to ensure that the emissions comprise only oxygen and carbon dioxide. Else, this sensor will send a message to the ECU that the catalytic converter is not working properly.
The exact system also includes a resonator that works to reduce noise during the driving experience. The noise produced by the engine while driving can be irritating without a system to reduce it. This system works by cutting on noises such as the droning sound. It will create a droning sound in the same frequency but in the opposing wavelength. This helps cancel the frequency and remove the noise.
So, these are the main components and parts of the exhaust system and how the system works overall. If your vehicle has an issue with the exhaust system, it is recommended to choose a specialized exhaust system repair service.